The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies <p><em>The Journal of US-Africa Studies</em> is an international, academic and interdisciplinary journal published in Portugal by the Center of African Studies of the University of Porto (CEAUP). <em>TJUSAS</em> publishes original, peer reviewed and high quality articles which contribute in a novel way to deal with the US-Africa social and political relations. It is meant to address the US policies towards the continent and to advance knowledge of the different geopolitical regions along with many other US-Africa bilateral political, economic, social and cultural relations.</p> <p>The journal is published twice a year where the editorial project focuses on two major sections in each issue: <strong>Politics, Economy, Security and Strategic Interests </strong>and <strong>Education, Culture and African Societies.</strong></p> en-US us-africa@letras.up.pt (Mourad Aty) ceaup@letras.up.pt (Carla Delgado) Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13281 <p>.</p> Maciel Santos Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13281 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pentecôtisme et sida. Illustration des relations entre religion et santé à la lumière de trois Églises dans deux townships sud-africains: entre métamorphoses et ambivalence https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13286 <p>Le présent article propose une réflexion sur la dialectique entre religion et santé. Plus précisément, cette anthropologie religieuse se focalisera sur trois Églises pentecôtistes, ce, dans deux townships sud-africains – et, les relations qu’elles entretiennent par rapport aux séropositifs et à l’épidémie.<br>On analysera, partant, comment les croyants et leurs proches vivent leur foi en temps de sida.</p> Thibaut Dubarry Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13286 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Eleições presidenciais de 2021 em São Tomé e Príncipe: “Povo põe, Povo tira”, “povo tira, povo põe”1 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13285 <p>Based on the 2021 presidential elections in São Tomé and Príncipe, this text focuses on the political confrontation in the archipelago, largely determined by the long-term strategy of Patrice Trovoada, head of ADI, a politician far from the land but decisively influential as none other, including those of the MLSTP, the independence party.<br>The description and analysis of electoral processes show how programmatic and doctrinal contents have long been abandoned in favor of adherence to political solutions focused on personalities, object of adhesion or rejection expressed in elections. This happened in the recent presidential elections that, permeated by political and legal litigation, dragged on from the end of July to the beginning of September 2021.&nbsp; The results of successive elections are the episodic and volatile expression of the desire for political solutions of a more democratic or more authoritarian nature. Regardless of the promises of respect for democracy<br>and the law, it is possible that the vox populi supports an authoritarian governance that asserts itself guided by the intention to instill order, which appears as a requirement for the desired economic growth and wealth.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Democracy, authoritarianism, elections, São Tomé and Príncipe.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>1. Este texto começou a ser escrito após a primeira volta das presidenciais de 2021. Foi concluído após a segunda volta em inícios de outubro de 2021. Ao tempo, Patrice Trovoada, chefe do ADI, primeiro-ministro entre 2014 e 2018, vivia fora do arquipélago. O governo, da Nova Maioria, resultava de uma coligação do MLSTP e do PCD. Em 2022, o partido ADI obteve outra maioria absoluta de deputados. Logo, Patrice Trovoada regressou ao país. Após a sua posse como primeiro-ministro, a pretexto de um dito golpe de estado, em 25 de novembro assassinaram-se pessoas no quartel de São Tomé. Este facto decerto feriu a expetativa de parte dos ilhéus relativamente à governação de Patrice Trovoada (nota de A. Nascimento).</p> Augusto Nascimento Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13285 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 African-American Identity in Toni Morrison’s Beloved (1987) https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13284 <p>This paper aims to examine the African-American identity in Toni Morrison’s Beloved (1987). The novel emphasizes the painful aspects of slavery such as sexual abuse and violence and explores the effects of the institution of slavery on the African-American character’s identity. The paper also addresses what it means to have a name and be free. The slavery institution does not believe in individuality. Naming is significant since it identifies the character. An analysis of the character’s identity and name will be studied since the characters have written their own stories and they are historically deprived of their humanity and language, a<br>major constituent of the character’s personal and fellow slaves’ history. Therefore, the African-American character looks at the past as he/she longs for the sense of self. Moreover, the African slave is prohibited from being himself/herself or from belonging to a family. In this kind of institution, the African-American doubts the essential aspects of his identity, such as his value as an individual and the source of his manhood. Even after emancipation, the character feels that he has no identity, alienated and<br>has no sense of self. After being freed, the characters try to reclaim their identities. The characters rename themselves in a way that they can now become ‘definer’ not ‘defined’: specific examples and references will be drawn from the narrative. The white founders of the institution of slavery commit acts of raping, an attack on one’s freedom, stealing and stripping the slave’s belongings and possessions, including his name.</p> <p><br><strong>KeyWords:</strong> Morrison, Beloved, Identity, African-American Novel, Slavery.</p> Abdulhafeth Ali Khrisat Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13284 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 American Grand Strategy in Africa: From Hegemony to the Balance of Power? https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13282 <p>This paper explores the American grand strategy in Africa; more specifically in response to economic and security issues and socio-political instability in different regions of Africa. Having said that, this paper does not seek to re/appraise the US economic areas or/and security role and/or strategies to avert and halt the widespread terrorism in different parts of the African Continent. Instead, it explores the American grand strategy in Africa from a theoretical perspective. To capture this argument, the study uses<br>Kenneth Waltz’s theory of Balance of Power (1979) as the most advanced theoretical framework to illustrate that the United States, as a great power, is power balancing China’s and Russia’s expanding geopolitical influence in Africa through military and economic cooperation. The paper argues that the United States’ goal behind power balancing with China and Russia is to make sure that their presence is not used to turn the African continent into the Eastern sphere of influence. The theoretical contribution of this research paper is to expand the understanding of Kenneth Waltz’s Balance of Power theory; especially balance by engaging in the competitive acquisition of territory and forming alliances.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords:</strong> The Theory of Balance of Power, American Grand Strategy, Africa, Hegemony, China, Russia.</p> M’lili Amina Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13282 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The United States, Iran’s Revolution, and the USSR Communist Phantom: The Linchpins that Triggered the Emergence of the Moroccan “Modern” Armed Forces from 1979 to 1982? https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13283 <p>The ghost of the USSR was one of the most important weapons used throughout the Cold War. This phantom made the US act almost immediately, helping his allies or to outmanoeuvring his political opponents. In the case of Iran, it made the US try to solve a deep social/economic problem by showering Iran with military and economic aid, which would prove to be fatal.<br>Moroccan king Hassan II, an expert and savvy political manipulator, would use his position as a US proxy agent to manoeuvre in the shadows within the Arab-speaking world and Africa. This position came to be in full effect when Morocco invaded Western Sahara, with the confidence that it would be a short affair. This proved to be difficult, almost impossible, as a short war became a long one. However, when in 1979, Iran, a stable political ally of the US, plummeted there were a shift in the US politics. The very<br>public rhetoric branding Polisario as a communist agent proved to be a stepping stone into reverting an almost lost war into a stalemate. The US, not wanting a replication of what happened in Iran to happen in Morocco, changed its policies. Polisario was now seen as a threat to the Moroccan Regime. Therefore, trying to prevent possible proxy problems such as internal un-ruling and uprises that could lead to the fall of the kingdom, the US used the Iranian solution: military and economic aid.</p> <p><br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Morocco, USSR, US, Iran Revolution, Cold War, Weapons Trade.</p> Jorge Teixeira Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13283 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13287 <p>.</p> CEAUP Copyright (c) 2023 The Journal of US-Africa Studies https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/AfricaStudies/article/view/13287 Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000