Africana Studia <p>A <em><strong>Africana Studia</strong></em> (AS) é uma publicação científica e interdisciplinar sobre <strong>África</strong> e <strong>sociedades africanas</strong>.</p> <p>A sua periodicidade é <strong>semestral</strong>.</p> pt-PT <p>Os autores cedem à Revista Africana Studia o direito exclusivo de publicação dos seus textos, sob qualquer meio, incluindo a sua reprodução e venda em suporte papel ou digital, bem como a sua disponibilização em regime de livre acesso em bases de dados.</p> <p>As imagens, no caso de serem originais e enviadas por via postal, serão devolvidas se assim for explicitado pelos autores.</p> <p>A <em>Africana Studia</em> é uma revista de acesso aberto que visa promover a divulgação e o debate da investigação científica. Todos os artigos aceitos são, portanto, publicados gratuitamente para autores e editores.</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> (Maciel Santos) (Carla Delgado) Mon, 12 Feb 2024 14:10:48 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial <p>.</p> Ana Vaz Milheiro, Ana Silva Fernandes Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Johan Lagae <p>.</p> Ana Vaz Milheiro, Ana Silva Fernandes Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Paisagens Coloniais e Pós- Coloniais: Arquitetura, Cidades e Infraestruturas <p>.</p> CEAUP Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The «Plan of Constantine» and the modernist utopia <p>The city of Algiers experienced during the Algerian war a disproportionate increase of bidonvilles. This term, which was firstly used in the Maghreb in the late 30’s (Descloitres, 1961), represented the living conditions of the poorest indigenous populations. At CIAM 9 of 1953, ClAM-Algiers group made a remarkable presentation of the bidonville Mahieddine. By representing Algerian silhouettes through the Modulor, the goal was to seek in the vernacular and popular culture a way to renew modernity (Abram, 1999). This meticulous work gave birth to a sketch of the Muslim home cell. The latter was tested and experimented in various applications but had its climax through the housing programs of the “Plan of Constantine”. In this paper, we will try to understand how urban processes shape the territory and how this Plan dating from 1958 participated in the mutation of the Algerian landscape through the social housing experimentation carried out principally by the modern movement architects.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Social housing, Grands Ensembles, Industrialization, CIAM 1953.</p> Ahmed El-Amine Benbernou Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ‘A land of minerals’: Oil Extraction and Constructs of French Coloniality in the Algerian Sahara <p>‘A land of minerals’: Oil Extraction and the Construct of French Coloniality in the Algerian Sahara In 1956 oil was discovered in the Algerian Sahara. The discovery sparked a huge infrastructural investment from the French metropole, with wells, roads and residential areas rapidly constructed across the desert. The colonial state widely promoted these developments as vast social ‘improvements’. But their tangible impacts on local communities were widely overlooked or presupposed, thus affecting the society of the late colonial era in Algeria. This paper examines how the development of the oil industry impacted residents and shaped socio-spatial practices across the Algerian Sahara between 1952 and 1962. The analysis concentrates on how colonial directives and ideologies directly and indirectly shaped the oil sector and explores the corollary implications, focusing on local social structures, urban and infrastructural landscapes and ethnic and regional identity archetypes.<br>As an industry with close links to the state, migratory labour and local communities, the paper posits that the oil sector provides a critical insight into both the lived realities and socio-political mechanisms of late colonial rule across the Mediterranean.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Algerian Sahara, colonialism, oil sector, infrastructure.</p> Gemma Jennings Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Retracing continuity and discontinuity of a vernacular typology mass housing in the colonial context of Morocco: the case of the city of Casablanca <p>This contribution aims to explore the courtyard house typology experimented in Morocco during the colonial period. In order to answer the needs of mass housing in the city of Casablanca, the colonial administration launched large-scale public housing<br>programs. Foreign architects were then seeking responses adapted to local context, adopting courtyard house typology depicted on traditional Muslim dwelling in order to achieve both individual and collective mass housing programs. From the Cité Habous realized in 1918, to the grid 8x8 of and the Nid d’abeilles in 1948, these experiences generated new architectural and urban modern typologies. Through an architectural and historical analysis, this article retraces continuities and discontinuities of courtyard house typology from colonial to postcolonial context and investigates how its reinterpretation had evolved differently beyond its own contexts, feeding new theoretical and practical answers.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Courtyard house, typology, mass housing, Casablanca.</p> Fatima Zohra Saaid, Najoua Beqqal, Mouna Sedreddine, Siham Elgharbi Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Surveying essences, producing culture: virgin landscapes and the architectural reinvention of the late Portuguese empire <p>Discoursively glocal architectures play a key role in today’s architectural norms and forms. This is also the case in Portugal where modern pedigreed architecture harnesses some form of local tradition and cultural reification as credentials. This article argues this is partly rooted in the cultural discourses developed within the post-war colonial project of the Portuguese dictatorship (Estado Novo), intersecting modernization with imperial reorganization, and in which architectural modernist ideals of autonomy and liberty played a direct role. The article contends the appropriation of these ideals needs to be considered in a double light: as a sign of progress for a professional elite and as a new mask for an old and violent system of inequality.<br>The article explores the colonial infra-structuring of post-war architectural knowledge, questioning the role of “virgin” landscapes in re-creating professional practice rallied by colonial modernization. The article examines how ethnographic processes were integrated into architectural creation, inspiring “culturally committed” forms of “Portuguese” modernism<br>and imperialism. Offering a critique and cultural debate of the entanglements between architecture, anthropology, nation and empire, the article aims to contribute to architecture’s political history and to debates on the role of modern spatial practices in the creation of racial categories.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Architecture, ethnography, modernism, colonialism.</p> Rui Aristides Lebre Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “Uma Guiné Melhor”: the psychological action and the spatialization of population control in rural areas. The strategic villages in Guinea-Bissau between 1968-1973 <p>In the last decade of colonial Portuguese Guinea (now Guiné-Bissau), the Portuguese government accelerated the process of territory occupation. While colonial administration announced to promote and improve living conditions of the Guinean population, nevertheless the population experienced a violent intrusion in their private and public life by the colonial uthorities. The effective territory occupation and the clash with the rural population started during the War of Independence and especially during the government of Governor General António de Spínola (1968-1972) under the so-called “Uma Guiné Melhor” (“A Better Guinea”) plan. This plan was not only a psychological-propaganda campaign, but also a clear military occupation strategy to achieve the implementation of “strategic camps that imprison” the local population (Ledda, 1970: 119). The aim of this paper is to examine the construction of those strategic camps, to explore the housing typologies and to question the social, spatial and economic impact on the life of the rural Guinean population. This article also aims to frame the controversial messages of the integration policy acclaimed in the “Uma Guiné Melhor” plan by exploring and analysing the strategies of specialization of people in action between 1968-1973.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Guinea-Bissau, António de Spínola, resettlements, War of Independence.</p> Francesca Vita Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Divided Urbanism – On the Spatial Production of Transportation Infrastructures in Livingstone during Late Colonialism <p>While segregation and exclusion were central features of colonialism in Africa, the degrees of segregation as well as their specific manifestations – materially and symbolically, visible and concealed – varied.<br>Legal procedures, policies and their implementation differed not only between colonialisms but also between colonial territories under the same rule and sometimes even between districts and urban areas within one and the same colonial state. Segregation was not only rendered visible in the physical divide between European and African urban areas but also in the discriminatory practices and uneven provision, distribution of and access to urban infrastructure.<br>This paper seeks to explore the provision of public transportation infrastructure in Livingstone (Zambia) during the late 1940s and 1950s by discussing the negotiation processes involved in this endeavour and the spatial dynamics and ideologies guiding<br>these negotiations and its discourses. The data used in this contribution rely on archival documents consulted at the National Archives of Zambia in Lusaka in 2017 and 2018.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Urban History, Transportation Infrastructure, Settler Colonialism, Northern Rhodesia.</p> Carl-Philipp Bodenstein Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 In between on all levels – [Applied] Foreign Affairs <p>[Applied] Foreign Affairs is a laboratory that investigates spatial, infrastructural, environmental, and cultural phenomena in sub-Saharan Africa. Projects are based on an interdisciplinary, trans-cultural, and experimental approach. Students are introduced to the spatial diversity and cultural vibrancy of contemporary African conditions, followed by “intensives” courses which focus on the status and potential of a specific place or situation, and field work that creates rural growth patterns, urban prototypes, imaginary art spaces, as well as relational physical interventions.<br>Conventional relationships between client, community and architect; studio, university and field are questioned. The process of relating and making is conceptualized in a reactive, slowed-down manner, embracing conditions of uncertainty and fragility.<br>Ideally, spatial and programmatic hybrids of diverse ownerships emerge.<br>While forming [A]FA, I found it problematic that whenever it was about Africa, (northern) schools of architecture either offered highly theoretical seminars on post-colonial theory or very down-to earth design-build studios – often with an uncritical, closeto- neo-colonial approach. The objective of [A]FA has been to work in the spectrum in-between.<br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Transdisciplinarity, Design-build, Decolonizing strategies, Transcultural spatial practices.</p> Baerbel Mueller Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Watson, J. (2021), Cold War Reckonings: Authoritarianism and the Genres of Decolonization. New York: Fordham University Press <p>.</p> Miguel Filipe Silva Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 La configuration inachevée de la modernité: L’expérience narrative qualifiante d’Idrīss al-Ğu‘aydī, voyageur marocain en Europe durant l’été 1876 <p>La relation d’ambassade du Marocain Idrîss al-Ğu‘aydî en France, en Belgique, en Angleterre et en Italie durant l’été 1876, Ithâf al-’akhyâr (Des curiosités de l’Europe qui étonnent les honnêtes gens) est importante à plus d’un titre. Traduit en français très<br>récemment, nous avons tenté, dans cette étude, de soulever au moins trois points: d’abord, son contexte politique international et ses motivations internes; ensuite l’impact de la révolution industrielle sur les membres de l’ambassade à travers le précieux témoignage du narrateur ; enfin, les moyens à la fois linguistiques et iconiques utilisés par l’auteur pour<br>traduire tour à tour la visibilité du miroir européen au lecteur marocain l’image d’une modernité inimaginable jusqu’alors.<br><strong>Mots-clés:</strong> Littérature de voyage, Maroc impérial, Révolution industrielle, Imagologie.</p> Nizar Tajditi Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 L’itinéraire d’un orientaliste au Portugal et ses réseaux européens. Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira, militaire et éthiopisant <p>La proposition de cet article est de reconstituer et de suivre au plus près l’itinéraire de Francisco Maria Esteves Pereira, un érudit orientaliste portugais de la fin du XIXe siècle. Outre son métier de militaire, il développa une passion pour les langues éthiopiennes et devint pour sa génération l’un des meilleurs spécialistes sur ces sujets. C’est à travers les archives militaires,<br>d’une part, et l’étude des réseaux européens des savants orientalistes, d’autre part que l’on peut mieux saisir de quelle manière il put devenir un spécialiste de l’éthiopien ancien et moderne. De cette contribution résulte une invitation à relire les sources sur les relations entre le Portugal, les jésuites et l’Éthiopie aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles, en prenant davantage en compte<br>les constructions de ces objets de savoirs, ce qui éclaire les revendications qui les animent et conduisent le lecteur à une «attitude d’empirisme critique».<br><strong>Mots-clés:</strong> Relations luso-éthiopiennes, orientalisme, jésuites en Éthiopie (XVIe-XVIIe siècles), réseaux savants, productions et éditions de sources.</p> Hervé Pennec Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Resumos/Abstracts <p>.</p> CEAUP Direitos de Autor (c) 2024 Africana Studia Mon, 12 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000