Language and Law / Linguagem e Direito https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD <p><strong><em>Language and Law / Linguagem e Direito</em></strong> is a leading international bilingual, bi-annual journal that publishes original research, review articles and book reviews on the fields of Forensic Linguistics / Language and Law. The journal is completely electronic and entirely open access. LL/LD publishes articles across the whole spectrum of the discipline and from both practitioners (e.g. chiefs of police, public prosecutors, professional translators and interpreters, expert witnesses) and academic researchers (lawyers and linguists).</p> en-US <p> </p><p> </p><p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licença Creative Commons" /></a></p><p>Este trabalho está licenciado com uma Licença <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" rel="license" target="_blank">Creative Commons - Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional</a>.</p> llld@letras.up.pt (Rui Sousa-Silva) mselas@letras.up.pt (mariana selas) Fri, 26 Apr 2024 10:57:17 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Vol. 10 N.º 1 (2023): Language and Law / Linguagem e Direito https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/14146 <p>Complete Issue</p> Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/14146 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Interpretação de normas constitucionais na interface entre semântica e pragmática https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/13524 <p>Interpretação de textos normativos é a atividade básica, e talvez mais importante, do/a jurista. Por isso, trabalhos dogmáticos sobre a assim-chamada teoria da interpretação são abundantes na literatura jurídica, especialmente um subcampo dessa teoria, que estuda as particularidades atribuídas à interpretação constitucional. Em busca de conceitos analiticamente mais poderosos, frequentemente a teoria do direito recorre aos estudos da linguagem, nos âmbitos da linguística e da filosofia da linguagem. Porém os usos que se fazem desses conceitos são problemáticos em dois níveis: (i) tornam tais conceitos, originalmente descritivos, isto é, sobre como o/as usuário/as da língua realmente produzem sentido dos discursos, em conceitos normativos, isto é, como esses sentidos deveriam ser produzidos na interpretação de normas jurídicas. Além disso, (ii) os usos de conceitos dos estudos da linguagem são feitos de forma descuidada, com pouca conexão com como são compreendidos e utilizados em seus campos de origem. Nesse artigo, procuro apresentar uma revisão de literatura de sobre como a semântica e a pragmática podem ser utilizadas coerente e descritivamente para analisar empiricamente os processos reais de produção de sentido na interpretação de normas jurídicas (especialmente constitucionais). Depois de criar um modelo baseado nessa revisão, testo esse modelo em um estudo de caso sobre a ADI 4.277, julgada em 2011, pelo STF, e que reconheceu a constitucionalidade da união estável homoafetiva. Seções de discussão e conclusão, com propostas da relevância deste estudo para a teoria da interpretação jurídica, para a separação de poderes e para os estudos sobre a linguagem da interpretação de normas jurídicas encerram o artigo.</p> João Pedro Pádua Copyright (c) 2024 João Pedro Pádua https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/13524 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Joke or threat? https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/10581 <p>This article examines a Danish criminal case concerning a high school student who posted a picture on Instagram with the caption ‘I’ll be the next school shooter guys, lmao, watch out’ (Danish: <em>jeg bliver den næste school shooter guys, lmao, watch out</em>). Reactions to – or <em>uptakes </em>on (Freadman, 1994) – the Instagram post were split between two distinct types; some took it as a threat and some took it as a joke. Building on theory on threatening communications (e.g. Fraser, 1998; Solan &amp; Tiersma, 2005; Gales, 2019, author et al., 2020), theory on humor (Billig, 2005; Norrick, 2010; Tsakona, 2017) and genre theory (Miller, 1984; Devitt, 2009; Freadman, 2012, 2020), this article studies these diverging uptakes as they are presented within the court case through both transcripts of audio recordings from the court room and court documents.The findings of this study show that while linguistic interpretation is mostly limited to the netcronym ‘lmao’, different non-linguistic behavior is often used as justification for the diverging interpretations of the linguistic behavior. Not only the utterance itself, but also the context of the utterance, including its uptakes, have a bearing on the outcome of the case and the assessment of the defendant’s intent. As such, this study offers important insight into an area that Gales (2019) argues is in need of further interdisciplinary research, namely how contextual features can influence the outcome of criminal cases concerning disputed threats.</p> Marie Bojsen-Møller Copyright (c) 2024 Marie Bojsen-Møller https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/10581 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Disguise and imitation of language style in WhatsApp messages https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/13061 <p>The deliberate manipulation of evidence is routinely considered in most branches of forensic science, but in the field of forensic authorship analysis it is a relatively new concern. This paper reports the findings from an experiment which explored what happens when authors are asked to manipulate their language style. We asked 120 Dutch students to write WhatsApp messages in their normal style and in two manipulated conditions: disguise and imitation. Results show that authors are able to introduce major changes in their language use, which are most substantial when they have access to messages written by the person they are trying to impersonate. These findings imply that the possibility of disguise and imitation should be considered when conducting forensic authorship analysis, especially when more than one candidate for authorship could have had access to the same device or account.</p> Meike M. de Boer, Fleur van der Houwen, Susan A. Blackwell Copyright (c) 2024 Meike M. de Boer, Fleur van der Houwen, Susan A. Blackwell https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/13061 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Developing a Resource Model of Power and Authority in Anonymous Online Criminal Interactions https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/12841 <p style="font-weight: 400;">The purpose of this paper is to provide both a theoretical foundation and a practical framework for analysing power and authority in online interactions, for application in forensic linguistic contexts. In online discussion fora differences in institutional or social power are often obscure and posters may be anonymous. This lack of contextual knowledge can create a challenge for the analyst in finding a framework to theorise, explore, and describe these sorts of power performance. In this paper, we provide a framework to describe the basis on which individuals make claims to power and use this framework to explore the nature and distribution of power across different fora of both criminal and benign intent. This is developed through an analysis of three online discussion fora, of approximately 160,000 words, resulting in a framework of eight main categories of power resource. This allows us to contrast the three fora, showing differences in the nature and distribution of power resource, and also enables description of individuals as high-resource or low-resource with regards to their claims to power. This theory and framework can also be productive in the analysis of language and power in computer mediated communication (CMC) more widely.</p> Helen Newsome, Tim Grant Copyright (c) 2024 Helen Newsome, Professor Tim Grant https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/12841 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Jack Unterweger - an authorship analysis of the notorious killer's autobiography "Fegefeuer oder die Reise ins Zuchthaus" https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/13150 <p style="font-weight: 400;">Jack Unterweger, a notorious killer and celebrated author, was a highly skilled manipulator and was caught more than once to have plagiarized poems and short stories (Herwig, 2022; Leake, 2010). Praised for his work as an author, and particularly for his autobiography “Fegefeuer oder die Reise ins Zuchthaus”, Unterweger was released from prison in 1990. Almost 40 years after the publication of his autobiography, rumors have been voiced that Unterweger might not have written his autobiography by himself and that Sonja von Eisenstein, one of Unterweger’s benefactors and supporters, might have been involved in the writing of it (Herwig, 2022). Thus, based on a corpus of nine books by Unterweger and von Eisenstein, this study sets out to investigate whether these rumors are potentially true. The analysis is carried out with the help of a combination of quantitative (HCA, PCA) and qualitative (stylistic) methods. The analysis shows that Unterweger’s writing style is similar to the one of the questioned autobiography, but that someone else’s writing style is also present.</p> Karoline Marko, Alesia Locker Copyright (c) 2024 Karoline Marko, Alesia Locker https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/LLLD/article/view/13150 Fri, 26 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000