https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/issue/feed Filosofia. Revista da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto 2023-08-02T00:00:00+00:00 José Meirinhos filosofia.revista@letras.up.pt Open Journal Systems <p><em>Filosofia</em> é uma revista com dupla revisão anónima por pares, publicada anualmente em edições impressas e online com conteúdo integral em acesso aberto. <strong>Línguas de publicação: </strong>A revista tem caráter internacional e, por isso, publica textos nas mais importantes línguas académicas europeias (Alemão; Castelhano; Francês; Inglês; Italiano; Português). <strong>Arbitragem: </strong>A revista adota as melhores práticas de transparência e rigor na arbitragem. Todos os artigos e estudos críticos são submetidos a leitura anónima por 2 especialistas externos.</p> https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13404 Volume Completo 2023-07-24T17:07:48+00:00 I F mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p><strong>DOI</strong>: <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39">https://dx.doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39</a></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 I F https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13387 Folha de Rosto 2023-07-24T13:20:25+00:00 I F cpedro@letras.up.pt <p>.</p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 I F https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13402 Normas Editoriais 2023-07-24T14:52:08+00:00 I F cpedro@letras.up.pt 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Celeste Maria Lourenço da Silva de Oliveira Pedro https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13389 Índice 2023-07-24T13:32:44+00:00 I F cpedro@letras.up.pt <p>.</p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 I F https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13400 David J. Rosner (ed.), Catastrophe and Philosophy, Lexington Books, 2019; 370 pp.; ISBN 978-1-4985-4011-7 2023-07-24T14:35:49+00:00 Tiago Mesquita Carvalho mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p>DOI: https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39r1</p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Tiago Mesquita Carvalho https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13403 Estatuto Editorial 2023-07-24T14:54:47+00:00 I F cpedro@letras.up.pt 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Celeste Maria Lourenço da Silva de Oliveira Pedro https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13390 Catástrofes e Filosofia. Introdução ao Problema 2023-07-24T13:45:16+00:00 Tiago Mesquita Carvalho cpedro@letras.up.pt <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39intr">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39intr</a></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Tiago Mesquita Carvalho https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13391 A dispersão das catástrofes. O ilimitado e a estrução do mundo 2023-07-24T13:50:35+00:00 Jorge Leandro Rosa mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p>Neste texto, propomo-nos examinar os modos como o pensamento nancyano da catástrofe, devedor da indagação heideggeriana da ontologia e da sua história, se lança numa leitura do mundo contemporâneo marcada pela passagem do «com» (<em>Mitdasein</em>) do plano existencial ao plano simplesmente categorial. Assim, a constituição ontológica do existente resvala para a pura justaposição, tal como esta aparece na sua análise da «proliferação dos fins» e da sua incessante transformação em meios. Dedicamos ainda a nossa atenção à ruína, saturação e ruptura do modelo da «construção». É na infinitização de toda e qualquer acção, pela imprevisível arquitectura técnica que a desenha, que o catastrófico penetra o mundo com a sua multiplicidade constitutiva e o estado de «suspensão» que o define. A vida dos resíduos na sua dispersão é exemplar neste contexto: a catástrofe desdobra-se assim em caducidades lançadas no ambiente e no psiquismo dos sujeitos, algo que pode ser visto como a introjecção da temporalidade da <em>estrução</em>. A anomia que hoje acolhe as catástrofes que se entrelaçam diante dos nossos olhos, aparentemente «escandalosa» num paradigma da acção, decorre num «presente que nunca se cumpre como presença» (Nancy) e que se encontra na impossibilidade de exprimir o sentido do mundo. A desordem da <em>estrução</em>, que caracteriza o que alguns chamam com impropriedade o Antropoceno, não acontece como reversão ou destruição de uma ordem, mas antes como des-ligamento do carácter imperativo da ordem. A partir desta questão, abre-se uma discussão sobre o sentido da/na comunidade que se abeira da catástrofe.</p> <p><strong>Palavras-chave</strong>: Ontologia, Catástrofe, <em>Estrução</em>, Mundo, Nancy.</p> <p><strong>DOI</strong>: https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a1</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Celeste Maria Lourenço da Silva de Oliveira Pedro https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/11935 Catastrophic Times. Against Equivalencies of History and Vulnerability in the «Anthropocene» 2022-08-24T23:31:16+00:00 Ralf Gisinger ralfgisinger@hotmail.com <p>With catastrophic events of «nature» like global warming, arguments emerge that insinuate an equivalence of vulnerability, responsibility or being affected by these catastrophes. Such an alleged equivalence when facing climate catastrophe is already visible, for example, in the notion of the «Anthropocene» itself, which obscures both causes and various vulnerabilities in a homogenized as well as universalized concept of humanity (anthropos). Taking such narratives as a starting point, the paper explores questions about the connection between catastrophe, temporality, and history, following mainly Walter Benjamin, Dipesh Chakrabarty and Jean-Luc Nancy with the goal to provide (1) a critique of the concept «Anthropocene» on the basis of nonequivalence while retaining its key features to still grasp the catastrophic present, (2) an analysis of anthropocenic time and the chronical structure of catastrophe, (3) philosophical considerations on the intersection of catastrophe and history.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Catastrophe, Anthropocene, Climate Catastrophe, Philosophy of History, Walter Benjamin.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a2">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a2</a></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Ralf Gisinger https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13395 Filosofia del peggio 2023-07-24T14:13:42+00:00 Emanuele Bottazzi Grifoni cpedro@gmail.com <p>Este artigo considera as obras <em>Logique du pire</em> de Clement Rosset e <em>Das Prinzip Verantwortung</em> de Hans Jonas a partir da perspectiva do pior. Em muitos aspectos, tratam-se de livros diametralmente opostos. Se para o primeiro tudo é acaso (<em>sorte</em>) e nenhuma acção é possível, excepto a do riso exterminador, para o segundo a acção de evitar a catástrofe é um dever e é mero jogo (<em>azar</em>) acrescentar acaso ao acaso através de acções imprudentes. Ambas as soluções são insuficientes. Para compreender porquê, é necessário ter uma visão mais nítida da catástrofe. Uma catástrofe é aquele acontecimento que quando se desenvolve é imprevisível, envolvendo indiscriminadamente um grupo de indivíduos e infligindo-lhes danos irreversíveis ou, melhor, danos que os amputam. É por isso necessário construir uma filosofia do pior sobre uma filosofia de amputação.</p> <p><strong>Palavras-chave</strong>: Rosset, Jonas, pior, catástrofe, mutilação.</p> <p><strong>DOI:</strong> <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a3">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a3</a></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Emanuele Bottazzi Grifoni https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13397 On the existential link of catastrophe and tragedy 2023-07-24T14:24:05+00:00 Victor G. Rivas López cpedro@gmail.com <p>The main thesis of this dissertation is set out in its very title, and to prove it will be necessary to eliminate the usual negative or melodramatic meaning of the two concepts that appear there and take them rather as the two extremes of the dialectical process of redefining the sociopersonal consciousness. In accordance with this, any catastrophe implies the violent breakup of the normal conditions of existence due to a natural or human factor whose direct consequences each one must understand and overcome on the triple ontological, social, and psychological determinations of the self. For its part, tragedy stands for the phase of critical and reflective integration that follows the catastrophe, which goes a lot beyond the sheer negativity of sorrow and even death, since even if the person or the people carried away by the catastrophe die, others will be able to make the most of that and the sociopersonal consciousness will be rearticulated. Of course, this implies that the self at issue is not only the individual one, so that other members of the lifeworld must be considered for the phenomenon to reveal a new or critical sense of existence beyond any previous approach to it. Thus, although there is an undeniably negativity throughout, it aims at a deeper level of comprehension of existence, which finally implicates that catastrophe is contextualized in a concrete cultural framework and not only as a sudden unsettlement and that tragedy is accordingly conceived as a philosophical tool more than as a literary genre that deals with the cruelty of fate. To get its aims, the dissertation will be divided into three sections of variable length: in the first one it will be analysed the experience and sense of catastrophe; in the second one, that of tragedy; in the third one, it will briefly be shown why understanding the nexus of both phenomena is axial for the current intellectual dynamics.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: violence, finitude, situation, consciousness, dialectics.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a4">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a4</a></p> <p> </p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Victor G. Rivas López https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13399 Shared Responsibility and Disaster Preparedness 2023-07-24T14:36:03+00:00 Javier Gil cpedro@letras.up.pt <p>This article focuses on some «disaster ethics» considerations on disaster preparedness and its related responsibilities. After recalling that concerns about preparedness and vulnerability have come to the fore in the domains of «disaster risk reduction» over the last decades, the article will endorse the view that the demarcation between natural disasters and human-induced disasters has becoming blurred and even questionable in many cases. Then, it will be argued that the ethical assessment of disasters needs to consider the entire disaster cycle and that ethical duties extend to the phase of disaster preparedness and require a framework of prospective and shared responsibilities. Accordingly, a number of ethical duties concerning disaster preparedness will be commented upon. Finally, the article will discuss a specific socio-epistemic dynamics of blame assignment that unbalances the appraisal of both vulnerability conditions and moral responsibilities of certain worst-off disaster victims.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Disaster ethics, Duties, Preparedness, Responsibility, Vulnerability.</p> <p> </p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Javier Gil https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13392 Human needs or Human wants? The Impact of crises and catastrophes on Human Rights 2023-07-24T13:59:24+00:00 Marzia Marastoni mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p>Philosophers, lawyers, and political scientists have for a long time attempted to solve issues related to human rights, crises, and catastrophes. This article aims at bringing these debates together, to show that human rights and crises are mutually interdependent. More precisely, I will illustrate that the instincts and emotions triggered by the materialization of certain crises and catastrophes might devalue the implementation of human rights law as it influences our conception of the grounding of human rights qua moral rights. For this reason, a call for a “theory of want” as a justification for the grounding and the implementation of human rights in times of<br />crisis is needed.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Human Rights, Crisis, Catastrophe, Moral Rights, Legal Rights.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a6">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a6</a></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Marzia Marasoni https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13394 The human-made aspect of disasters. A philosophical perspective from Japan 2023-07-24T14:12:13+00:00 Romaric Jannel mjgomes@letras.up.pt Laÿna Droz mjgomes@letras.up.pt Takahiro Fuke mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p>What is a disaster? This paper explores the different hermeneutic levels that need to be taken into consideration when approaching this question through the case of Japan. Instead of a view of disasters as spatiotemporal events, we approach disasters from the perspective of the milieu. First, based on the Japanese «dictionaries of disasters», the Japanese vocabulary of disaster is described. Second, this paper reviews briefly the Japanese interdisciplinary disaster-management tradition. To highlight the humanmade aspect of disasters, the idea of fūdo 風土 is introduced. This concept allows us to see disasters as a phenomenon of the milieu, which emerges from the co-constitutive relations between individuals, communities, and the local environment. The final part debates the narratives by some national and international political actors that link «Japanese identity and culture» to disaster management and sometimes include nationalist claims rooted in the essentialization of the «Japanese exception». Given<br />the cruciality of sociocultural and political representations of disasters tied to identity politics, and the increasing frequency and intensity of disasters, a long-term, local people-focused and culturally sensitive perspective on disasters might be better adapted to the climate change era.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: disaster, Japanese philosophy, resilience, Japan, fūdo 風土, essentialism.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a7">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a7</a></p> <p> </p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Romaric Jannel, Laÿna Droz, Takahiro Fuke https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13396 Pandemonium and postmedia animism 2023-07-24T14:17:09+00:00 Joff Peter Norman Bradley mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p>In what follows I distinguish «postmodern animism» from my preferred term «postmedia animism», which I propose is a better term to express a minor, virtual, contrarian art and media. In the time of planetary trauma, ecological devastation and collapse, this term will serve as a heuristic concept to trace the passage from pandemic, panic, catastrophe and crisis to the series pandemonium, delirium and the carnivalesque. My gambit is to invoke a rebellious and affirmative <em>Yōkai</em> imaginary (妖怪, ghost, phantom, strange apparition) in order to contest passive forms of<br />«transcendental narcissism» or «transcendental miserabilism». 2 This we shall designate as an aesthetics of existence. 3. In particular, I will analyse the relationship between natural disasters and politics within the Japanese imagination through reference to Namazu-e (鯰絵, woodblock prints depicting catfish), and their political effects in the aftermath of the earthquake of October 1855 (安政江戸地震, Ansei Edo Jishin) in the Edo period of Japanese history (FIG 1). My intention is to show that this<br />historic art form, which grew out of trauma, demonstrates a fabulatory, dissensual and political aesthetics of resistance and creativity. It is an imaginary which appears conspicuously absent in our contemporary moment.<br /><strong>Keywords</strong>: Postmedia, Animism, Edo period (江戸時代 –1603-1867), Guattari.</p> <p>DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a8">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a8</a></p> <p> </p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Joff Peter Norman Bradley https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13398 Na antecâmara da catástrofe ou pensar o peresente a partir do impensado 2023-07-24T14:32:42+00:00 Irandina Afonso mjgomes@letras.up.pt <p>As expressões de nacionalismos, as crispações identitárias e as (des)territorializações violentas que acompanham, hoje, muitos fenómenos de mobilidade humana e reconfigurações geopolíticas são cada vez mais frequentes e disseminadas pelo mundo. Adquiriram sobretudo uma complexidade que, neste artigo, serve uma crítica do presente e instiga o equacionamento de transformações nos processos de produção das relações sociais, da estruturação do viver social e da subjetividade. Os conflitos sociopolíticos contemporâneos alinham-se, assim, com questões acerca da possibilidade de esforços coletivos e suas condições de aplicabilidade - em contexto atual de dispersão, conflito e desigualdade -, na prevenção ou mitigação de potenciais catástrofes.<br /><strong>Palavras-chave</strong>: desterritorialização, catástrofe, filosofia social e política, subjetividade, ontologia social</p> <p>DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a9">https://doi.org/10.21747/21836892/fil39a9</a></p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Irandina Afonso https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13401 Índice Onomástico 2023-07-24T14:45:48+00:00 I F cpedro@letras.up.pt 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Celeste Maria Lourenço da Silva de Oliveira Pedro https://ojs.letras.up.pt/index.php/filosofia/article/view/13388 Ficha técnica 2023-07-24T13:29:13+00:00 I F cpedro@letras.up.pt <p>.</p> 2023-01-02T00:00:00+00:00 Direitos de Autor (c) 2023 Celeste Maria Lourenço da Silva de Oliveira Pedro