L’intériorité de l’être dans le monde : le jeune Heidegger, lecteur d’Augustin et de Luther
Palavras-chave:interiority, self, Heidegger, Luther, Augustine.
From the Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie of 1919-1920, Heidegger seems to drop the idea of an interiority of the self : he explains that the examination of the pure life, in which he intends to be engaged, is not an internal examination. However, it should not lead us to conclude that the first Heidegger totally breaks away from the idea of interiority. One concept, forged during the first lecture courses of Freiburg (1919-1923), testifies in particular to the persistence of this idea in the young Heidegger’s hermeneutics of facticity : the concept of Selbstwelt, world of the self. The point of our article is to determine the real meaning and the sources of this conception of the self’s interiority. According to us, it directly comes from Heidegger’s phenomenology of religion, and more precisely from his interpretations of Augustine and Luther. Thus, we dwell on two texts of Heidegger : the lecture course of the 1921 summer semester, entitled Augustine and neoplatonism, and a talk entitled The problem of sin in Luther, given in Marburg in Februar 1924 within the context of a seminar of Rudolf Bultmann on Paul’s ethics. We attempt to demonstrate that the young Heidegger looks for, in particular in Luther, and more precisely in his interpretation of Paul’s inner man, a genuine conception of interiority, compatible with the life’s being in the world.